Knee Anatomy & Injuries

Knee Anatomy: Injuries, Complication & Treatment

Knee Anatomy

The anatomy of the knee is what retains knee specialists involved fixing the injury that happens from twisting, drops, scrapes, or turning beyond its adequate variety of motion. The femur, tibia, and patella, are the bones that make up the structure of the knee. Four major ligaments join the bones, including the middle collateral, parallel collateral, anterior cruciate (ACL) and posterior cruciate with the latter being the most frequently damaged.

Injuries to Menisci:

The menisci are the cartilage inside the knee that causes weight distributed evenly across the joint. Knee surgeons also treat meniscal injuries that include tearing of the wedge-shaped cartilage, often from twisting the knee. These injuries may also occur in combination with ligament injuries. If not repaired, these injuries significantly increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis later in life.

Causes of ACL and PCL Injuries:

Athletes are more susceptible to ACL injuries. It is due to the pressure and frequent turning motions they go through during sports play. Suddenly twisting or changing direction can cause damage. The posterior cruciate ligament, on the other hand, is more likely to become injured because of a direct blow on the outside of the knee.

Tears of the ACL:

These are responsible for sending many athletes to knee surgeons each year for repairs. This ligament runs diagonally across the middle of the knee to hold the tibia in place. It prevents it from sliding out over the femur. It also adds stability to the knee while joint rotation. While tears can also occur to the medial collateral ligament or posterior cruciate ligament, those to the ACL are both more frequent and often more severe.

Additional Complications of Knee Injuries:

Tendons are also at risk of injury including inflammation as well as the possibility of ruptures. These can occur from a variety of activities, including running, dancing, squatting and particularly when lifting something heavy.

Injuries to the knee can also result in the inflammation of the bursae, or bursitis. This refers to the small fluid-filled sacs that provide cushioning to the need to reduce friction on the joint and to the ligaments and tendons that surround it. Symptoms of bursitis include swelling, stiffness, pain, and warmth in the knee area.

In some cases, an injury will cause bone or cartilage to be broken off, creating loose bodies in the joint space. Depending on the position, these loose bodies may hamper the movement of the joint and result in pain.

Time for considering the surgical way of treatment:

There is some controversy, about when surgery is the right course of action and when non-invasive treatment is adequate. For athletes, a torn ACL may have a serious impact that can only be treat by repairing the tear surgically. For anyone, persistent pain and an inability to bear weight long-term may signal that a knee injury is severe enough to require treatment that can only be provided by knee surgeons.


Dr. Lalit Modi is one of the best knee replacement surgeon in Jaipur at JaipurJoints clinic. Dr. Modi has performed 5000+ surgeries for the knee, hip, and shoulder diseases including Joint Replacement, Arthroscopy, and complex trauma.

Dr. Lalit Modi

MBBS, MS, DNB, MNAMS, Gold Medalist,
Knee, Hip & Shoulder Specialist 15+ Year Experience
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